Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century’s key global challenges. Cancer isnot only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also hasdiet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancerdevelopment are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthylifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functionalfoods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bittermelon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In additionsome beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is ageographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution withimplications for anticancer influence.