The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-AsiaRegional Office (ARO) organized an international session as part of the official program of the 72nd AnnualMeeting of the Japanese Cancer Association to discuss the topic “What is cost-effectiveness in cancer treatment?”Healthcare economics are an international concern and a key issue for the UICC. The presenters and participantsdiscussed the question of how limited medical resources can be best used to support life, which is a question thatapplies to both developing and industrialized countries, given that cancer treatment is putting medical systemsunder increasing strain. The emergence of advanced yet hugely expensive drugs has prompted discussion onmethodologies for Health Technology Assessment (HTA) that seek to quantify cost and effect. The session benefitedfrom the participation of various stakeholders, including representatives of industry, government and academiaand three speakers from the Republic of Korea, an Asian country where discussion on HTA methodologies isalready advanced. In addition, the session was joined by a representative of National Institute for Health and CareExcellence (NICE) of the United Kingdom, which has pioneered the concept of cost-effectiveness in a medicalcontext. The aim of the session was to advance and deepen understanding of the issue of cost-effectiveness asviewed from medical care systems in different regions.