Environmental Sciences (Biotechnology), Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Genetic polymorphisms constitute one of the reasons behind the racial variation in prostate cancer occurrence. Published studies regarding genetic associations of glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) null deletion polymorphisms with prostatic carcinoma have generated inconsistent results among different populations. To date, even a single meta-analysis is not available representing the association of these genes with prostate cancer in different ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to provide a clear picture of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null deletion and risk of prostate cancer among different ethnic groups (i.e. Asians, Europeans, Americans, Africans and Eurasians). A systematic search was performed with the help of various search engines to find out the all the recent studies (2004 to 2015) evaluating the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion in prostate cancer development. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of a total of 34 studies with 7,281 cases and 9,082 controls was analyzed using STATA and MedCalc software. Overall, GSTM1 deletion (OR 3.67; CI 1.39-9.85; P= 0.001) was strongly associated with prostatic cancer. In the sub group analysis GSTM1 null deletion was also significantly associated with prostate cancer among Asians (OR 4.84; CI 1.08-21.5; P= 0.03), Eurasians (OR 17.69; CI 9.87-31.70; <0.001) and Americans (OR 0.11; CI 0.01-1.06; P= 0.05). No association was observed among Europeans (P=0.42) and Africans (P= 0.40). As a whole GSTT1 null deletion (OR 0.85; CI 0.28-2.58; P= 0.77) did not show anyt significant association with prostate cancer risk among different populations. When the data were stratified into different groups, however, Africans demonstrated a significant association of GSTT1 null deletion (OR 1.95; CI 1.57-2.39; <0.001) with prostate cancer, whereas no association was found among Asians (P= 0.90), Americans (P= 0.50), Europeans (P= 0.89) and Eurasians (P= 1.0). In conclusion, both GSTM1 and GSTT1 may contribute to prostate cancer development but GSTM1 may prove to be a stronger candidate risk factor.