The present training course was programmed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki 2001). This course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for communitybased cancer prevention in developing countries to promote comprehensive procedures focusing mainly on primary but also including secondary prevention of cancer.
Cancer is the leading cause of deaths in developed countries, while communicable diseases are still major causes of mortality in developing countries (WHO 2000). However, the relative burdenn of cancer deaths is also increasing in developing countries, with economic development and elongation of the life span (Walgate 1984; Chackiel 1999). Boffetta and Parkin have estimated cancer to account for 13 percent of the annual deaths in adults of developing countries (Boffetta and Parkin 1994). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment in developing countries underly the necessity to stress prevention as an indispensable measure for cancer control (Mikheev et al. 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are limited, and encouragement should be given as the first priority as regards to cancer prevention. The Japanese Government extends official development assistance (ODA) to developing countries to support self-help efforts that will lead to economic progress and a better life for their citizens. Since its foundation in 1974, JICA has implemented Japan's technical cooperation under the ODA programme. Currently, JICA conducts such activities as training, dispatch of experts, provision of equipment, project-type technical cooperation, development studies, dispatch of cooperation volunteers (JOCV), and survey and administration of capital grant aid programs.
The present training program for overseas participants is one of JICA's fundamental technical cooperation activities for developing countries. Participants come from overseas in order to obtain knowledge and technology in a wide variety of fields. The objectives of the JICA training programs are: 1) to contribute to the development of human resources who will promote the advancement of developing countries, and 2) to contribute to the promotion of mutual understanding and friendship.
The present report concentrates on revised contents with this 4th course and includes a commentary on its advantages and disadvantages.