The exact etiology of cholangiocarcinoma remains undetermined. One of the related risk factors for its development might be chronic viral hepatitis infection. Concerning hepatitis B infection, a correlation with cholangiocarcinoma has been documented. Here, we summarize knowledge on the prevalence of hepatitis B seropositivity among patients with cholangiocarcinomas. According to the literature review, five reports were recruited for further metanalysis, covering 565 cases. The overall prevalence of seropositive cancer was 14.5 % (83/ 565). Further analysis revealed no correlation between prevalence rate and nationality of the studied population (P > 0.05). Therefore, hepatitis B infection might be a contributing factor for cholangiocarcinoma development.