A case of endemic goitre associated with thyroid cancer and huge enlargement of the scalp is reported in a Brazilian mulatto from an iodine deficient Central west region of the country. On admission, osteolytic metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma were found scattered in the parietal bones. Impressive images from old files could illustrate and emphasize the hurdle-like role of poverty and inadequate social and cultural attitudes before the fight against cancer in regions with limited resources. Even in developed countries, goitres still occur in areas with iodine prophylaxis. Another concern is insufficiency of reliable data on the incidence and pattern of head and neck tumours in developing countries.