Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.