Roles and Causes of Abnormal DNA Methylation in Gastrointestinal Cancers


Evidence now suggests that epigenetic abnormalities, particularly altered DNA methylation, play a crucial role in ‍the development and progression of human gastrointestinal malignancies. Two distinct DNA methylation abnormalities ‍are observed together in cancer. One is an overall genome-wide reduction in DNA methylation (global hypomethylation) ‍and the other is regional hypermethylation within the CpG islands of specific gene promoters. Global hypomethylation ‍is believed to induce proto-oncogene activation and chromosomal instability, whereas regional hypermethylation is ‍strongly associated with transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. To date, genes involved in regulation of ‍the cell cycle, DNA repair, growth signaling, angiogenesis, and apoptosis, are all known to be inactivated by ‍hypermethylation. Recently developed techniques for detecting changes in DNA methylation have dramatically ‍enhanced our understanding of the patterns of methylation that occur as cancers progress. One of the key contributors ‍to aberrant methylation is aging, but other patterns of methylation are cancer-specific and detected only in a subset ‍of tumors exhibiting the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Although the cause of altered patterns of DNA ‍methylation in cancer remains unknown, it is believed that epidemiological factors, notably dietary folate intake, ‍might strongly influence DNA methylation patterns. Recent studies further suggest that polymorphisms of genes ‍involved in folate metabolism are causally related to the development of cancer. Identifying epidemiological factors ‍responsible for epigenetic changes should provide clues for cancer prevention in the future.