The aim of this study was to determine the final histopathological outcome for women with a squamous cellcarcinoma (SCCA) diagnosed by cervical cytology. The medical records and computerized colposcopic database ofpatients with SCCA on cytology who underwent colposcopy at Chiang Mai University Hospital between February2003 and December 2005 were reviewed and 48 women with SCCA cytology were identified (mean age 50 years,range 31-73). Nineteen (39.6%) women were postmenopausal. Unsatisfactory colposcopy was noted in 42 (87.5%).Thirty one (64.6%) of the patients had a final pathological diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(HGSIL), whereas only 16 (33.3%) had invasive cancer. The remaining one patient had a low-grade squamousintraepithelial lesion. Sensitivity and specificity of colposcopic examination for predicting invasive cancer was 50%and 78%, respectively. In conclusion, most women with a SCCA on cervical cytology have high-grade cervical lesionson final pathology, with only one third demonstrating invasive cancer. The loop electrosurgical excision procedure(LEEP) remains an important measure for combined treatment and diagnosis.