This study aimed to investigate the histological outcome of cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV) infectionand the association of risk factors with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical carcinoma(ICC) development in Northeast Thai women. The study population (n=210) comprised 71 cases of normal cervix, 71cases of CIN and 68 cases of ICC. The histological outcome of HPV infection was determined for 9.5% of the studypopulation. Increased risk factors for CIN were observed for more than one partner (odds ratio (OR)=3.75, p<0.05),history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) (OR=2.28, p<0.05), menarche under 14 years of age (OR=0.31, p<0.05)and partners’ smoking history (OR=3.98, p<0.01). Increased risk for ICC was observed for those with a history ofSTDs (OR=0.14, p<0.01) and multiparity (OR=2.53, p<0.01). Age at first sexual intercourse was not a risk factor inthis study population. Further studies with HPV-DNA tests should more precisely quantify the risks.