Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however,increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), andmalignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitationsof medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al.,1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are also limited, and encouragement of theirdevelopment should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed bythe Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has beenannually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki,2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004; 2006). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsiblefor community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensiveprocedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention ofcancer.