Alcohol use was examined for its influence on mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort. While overallrisk of death, as well as ischemic heart disease, were reduced with moderate consumption, increase was notedwith heavy intake, even after cessation. With heavy consumption, overall cancers were also increased. In males,risk of oesophageal cancer was particularly elevated and risk of liver and renal cancer was found to be increasedin ex-drinkers. Heavy consumption appears to be also a risk factor for rectal and gallbladder cancer. Furthermore,cerebrovascular disease was increased with dose-dependence.