In the JACC study, risk of death with all cancers and all causes was found to be increased with activesmoking,with and without dose-dependence, respectively. Death from both of the circulatory diseases was alsoadversely affected. The younger the age at commencing the habit, the greater the effect, with diminution aftercessation. Regarding particular cancers, strong evidence was noted for the esophagus, liver, pancreas, lung andurothelium. Also links were apparent with gastric and gallbladder cancers and the breast in female ex-smokers.With passive smoking, the data were equivocal.