Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer in Northeast Thailand


Background: Stomach cancer is not common in Thailand but the life styles of the Thai population are changingto become more Western so that information for planning control programme of stomach cancer is necessary.The highest incidence rates of this neoplasm are found in Eastern Asia, ranging from age-standardized rates of95.5/105 (men) and 40.1/105 (women) in Yamagata, Japan to 4.1/105 (men) and 2.1/105 (women) in Khon Kaen,Northeast of Thailand. In Thailand, the estimated age-standardized incidence rates in 1993, 1996 were 4.9/105,4.1/105 in men and 3.0/105 , 2.6/105 in women. Risk factors for stomach cancer in Thai population are unclear,but possibly include low intake of vegetables and fruits, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and high intake ofsalt.
Objective: To investigate various aspects of dietary factors, smoking, and alcohol drinking in determiningrisk of stomach cancer in Thai population.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Khon Kaen, Thailandduring 2002-2006, to study the role of these factors in stomach cancer. 101 stomach cancer cases and 202 matchedcontrols (case : control = 1:2) by sex, age (± 3 years) and region were recruited from Srinagarind Hospital andKhon Kaen Regional Hospital, in Khon Kaen Province. All of cases were histologically confirmed. Controls hada variety of diseases, the main ones being disease of the eye. Information on dietary habits, alcohol drinking andsmoking were collected by a structured questionnaire, blood samples were collected for further study.
Results:The distribution of the general characteristics by case-control status, the distribution of age and sex were similarin cases and controls. In the final analysis, the factors that found to be higher risk but not statistically significantwere long-term filter cigarette smoking (OR=1.9, 95%CI: 0.85-4.50), long-term alcohol consumption (OR=1.2,95%CI: 0.51-2.60) and low intake of vegetables and fruits (OR=1.2, 95%CI: 0.74-1.96). A high intake of vegetableoil (OR=4.5, 95%CI: 1.00.-20.17) was found to be associated with increased risk, and similar tendencies werenoted for pork oil (OR=1.4, 95%CI: 0.63-3.01) and jeaw prik (mainly chilly with plara broth) (OR=1.2, 95%CI:0 .76- 2.01).
Conclusion: Our study confirmed protective effects of a high intake of fruits and vegetables againststomach cancer development and showed a high intake of sauces to increase risk of stomach cancer as in othercountries in Asia.