Urinary cells obtained from voided urine specimens of 46 patients with urothelial carcinomas (UCs) and 10normal individuals were analyzed with 3 different centromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes.The overall sensitivity of cytology was 48.9% compared to 95.7%with the FISH technique. The minimumvalues were found for stage Ta and grade 1 (90.5 and 89.4) and sensitivity of FISH in other stages and gradeswas 100%. Chromosome 3 demonstrated the most frequent chromosomal abnormality in all samples (43%),followed by chromosome 17 (32%) and chromosome 7 (25%). There was a statistically significant associationbetween the number of cell abnormalities in chromosome 17 and the tumour stage (p value=0.02). No relationshipwas found between the type of chromosomal abnormality and grade. Thus feasibility and reliability of a FISHbased approach was confirmed for detection of UC in urine samples.