Background: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiological features of prostate cancer in Iranand to define its public health priorities for an early detection program.
Methods: A review of published articlesfrom 1975 to October 2008 was conducted using different search engines and 147 Persian medical journals.Abstracts only were excluded. Inclusion criteria were studies on prostate cancer clinical and epidemiologicaldata.
Results: In all, 40 full texts, 7 national reports, and 10 provincial reports were accessed. The incidence rateof prostate cancer was 9.6 (3.2 to16.0) per 100,000 in multi geographical settings. The crude prostate cancermortality rate was 4.5 per 100.000 in 2004. The prevalence of prostate cancer among patients with benignprostate hyperplasia (BPH) presentation was 6.3%. The overall prostate cancer detection rate was reported3.6% in male over 40 years old by population screening programs.
Conclusion: The rate of prostate cancerincidence in Iran is significantly less than those in developed countries and similar to Eastern MediterraneanRegions. However, it is expected to rise dramatically in the future because of the anticipated increase in lifeexpectancy and percentage of old age groups. Therefore, prostate cancer control should be integrated into theNational Cancer Control Program focusing on prevention and early detection in men over 40 years old or withsymptomatic BPH. An appropriate PSA cut off point for screening should be defined by population pilot studies.