Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world. Despite a decline of up to70% in its incidence and prevalence through screening programs, it is still the most common gynecologicalcancer worldwide. Since the human papilloma virus (HPV) was conclusively identified as the etiological factorinducing cervical cancer, investigations during the last two decades have been concentrating on producing avaccine against HPV virus. Thus prevention of HPV infection has been the main purpose and vaccination isexpected to reduce up to 70% of related cervical cancer and prevent precancerous and cancerous lesions of thegenitalia. However, screening programs are still essential for those who have already been exposed to the highrisk forms of the virus and educational and information programs continue to play important roles to increasethe success rate of screening, by whichever of the modalities is most appropriate for the local conditions.