Measures for Cancer Control on an Organ-Site Basis


A great deal of research information has been generated regarding cancer incidence rates and underlyingrisk factors. Since incidence:mortality ratios are generally less than 2:1 and often approach equivalence thereclearly is a need for particular emphasis on preventive measures and early detection. Whether the latter shouldbe through screening or education for improved awareness will depend on the socioeconomic conditions and theorgan site. The location within the body, physiological factors and the cell type, whether essentially glandular orsquamous, and the particular risk and protective factors operating in the particular social context will all impacton what measures can be recommended. Here the focus is on primary and secondary prevention of cancers inthe various regions of Asia, taking into account similarities and differences in etiology for organs/tisssues of thegastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the urinary system, the reproductive system, the nervous system,the thyroid and non-Hogkins lymphomas and leukemias. Globocan 2002 data on incidence and mortality andall of the findings reviewed in the Regional Reviews were taken into account in compiling this overview. Thechief recommendations are education in the developing world, to overcome the problem of late presentation athospital (reflected by high mortality/incidence ratios), betel and tobacco control for the oral cavity and pharynx,reduce salt intake and targeting of Helicobacter pylori for the stomach, reduction in food intake, improvementin the diet and more exercise for the colorectum, kidney, prostate, breast, ovary and endometrium, reduction insmoking and exposure to other fumes for the lung, increase in water intake, particularly for the urinary bladder,and avoidance of parasites for the special cases of the urinary bladder and intrahepatic bile ducts. The cancerregistry could be a major resource for development of further research capacity, with selection of suitablepartners in areas with contrasting cancer rates and lifestyles for detailed comparisons applying the same protocols.This should facilitate future exploration and hopefully elucidation of any anomalies, so that cancer controlprograms can be optimized in accordance.