Alcohol consumption is one of the risk factors for colorectal cancers and adenomas. Since alcohol dehydrogenaseis a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism, it may thus play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. The present study wasconducted to asess the association of a functional ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism with colorectal adenomas in acase-control study of male officials in the Self-Defense Forces who received a pre-retirement health examinationat two Self-Defense Forces hospitals. The study subjects comprised 455 with colorectal adenomas and 1,052controls without polyps, all of whom underwent total colonoscopy. Statistical adjustment was made for age,hospital, Self-Defense Forces rank, body mass index, cigarette-years, and alcohol consumption. There was nomeasurable association between the ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism and colorectal adenoma development. Theadjusted odds ratio for individuals with the 47His/His genotype compared to those with individuals with 47Argalleles was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 0.94-1.49). There was no influence of the level of alcohol consumption(interaction P = 0.84). In addition, there were no clear interactions of the ADH1B with ALDH2 Glu487Lys andMTHFR C677T with regard to the risk of colorectal adenoma. In conclusion, the present study suggested thatthe ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism does not contribute to the risk of colorectal adenoma in any subgroup ofmiddle-aged Japanese men defined by alcohol drinking, as well as the ALDH2 Glu487Lys and MTHFR C677Tgenotypes.