Prevalence and Distribution of High Risk Human Papillomavirus(HPV) Types 16 and 18 in Carcinoma of Cervix, Saliva of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and in the General Population in Karnataka, India


Background: In view of conducting HPV vaccination in India it is most important to understand the prevalenceof HPV genotypes in this population, not only in squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and oral cavity but also inthe general population. In this study we explored the prevalence and distribution of high-risk HPV types 16 and18 in carcinoma of cervix, saliva of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and in general population inKarnataka.
Methods: Cervical cancer specimens after punch biopsy (n=60) were obtained from women attendingKarnataka Institute of Medical Sciences and Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli (KCTRI).Saliva rinse of (n=34) OSCC patients from KCTRI and (n=396) normal individuals from different regions ofNorth Karnataka, were collected and PCR based high-risk HPV genotyping was carried out.
Results: Usingconsensus PCR primers it was observed that 96.7% patients were infected with HPV irrespective of specific typein cervical cancer. Among them, HPV 16 was observed in 89.7%, HPV 18 in 86.2% and both HPV 16 and 18 in79.3% patients. In OSCC, 70.6% were positive for HPV, among which HPV 16 prevalence was observed in 45.8%,HPV 18 in 54.2%, and HPV 16 and 18 multiple infection in 4.18%. In general population, HPV prevalence wasobserved in 84.4%. Among them, HPV 16 was observed in 2.75% and HPV 18 in 22.0% patients. In generalpopulation, multiple infection with HPV 16 and 18 was not observed but 75.3% were found to be infected byHPV genotypes other than HPV 16 & 18.
Conclusions: Our study reveals that multiple infection of HPV 16 and18 is quite high in cervical cancer and in case of OSCC, it was in conformity with the other studies. In generalpopulation HPV 18 prevalence was observed to be high. With this, we can conclude that both HPV 16 and 18vaccinations will reduce the burden of cervical cancer and OSCC in Karnataka.