Objective: To give a clear picture with epidemiological evidence about the present scenario of cervical cancercontrol and HPV in India. Design: Review of published studies, concentrating on recent systematic reviews,meta-analyses and large prospective studies. Conclusions and recommendations: Cervical cancer is unique amongcancers in that it can largely be prevented through screening and removal of precursor lesions. It is the secondmost common cancer among women worldwide and is the most common malignancy in developing countries,particularly in India. Nowadays, cervical screening for women is necessary because there are no signs andsymptoms of cervical precancers. The establishment of a prevention program is urgently required consideringboth screening and vaccination. But most women in India do not have access to effective screening programmes.It has been estimated that in India, even with a major effort to expand cytology services, it will not be possibleto screen even one-fourth of the population once in a lifetime in the near future. New HPV vaccines will alsohelp prevent HPV infection and the precancerous changes that lead to cervical cancer. The focus on detectionand prevention of cervical cancer must be emphasized in a highly populated country like India to prevent itsextensive spread.