Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. HPVmay cause several reproductive tract diseases and cervical cancer is the most serious health problem due topersistent high risk HPV infection. Although cervical cancer showed a declining trend over the past three decadesin China, it remains a major health problem in Chinese women especially women living in rural China. Thedisease burden is believed to be underestimated given the relatively high HPV prevalence shown in recent studies.To date, prophylactic vaccination as a primary prevention of cervical cancer are available in many countries andregions of the world; yet, they are not yet accessible in mainland China. Before introduction of HPV vaccines,screening remains the predominant method of prevention. Selected population based screening sites are availablein every province of China, yet, an organized screening program operating nationwide still does not exist. Abetter understanding of the disease burden is likely to help develop a comprehensive intervention policy forfuture management of cervical cancer in China. It is important to review the disease burden of cervical cancerand the current status of cervical cancer screening in mainland China.