Oral cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in Indian men and is the leading cause of cancer deaths.Helicobacter pylori have been reported to be present in 0-40% of the cases with head neck cancer. A higherpercentage has been identified in laryngeal and pharangeal cancer. We here carried out a hospital-based, case–control study of 20 patients with newly diagnosed oral cancer and 20 healthy controls without any cancer toevaluate associations between H pylori infection and oral cancer using culture and 16sRNA PCR technique forbacterial identification. H pylori was isolated from the culture of three cases and one control, while three casesand two control showed PCR positivity for H Pylori 16sRNA. The odds ratio by culture was 3.0, 95% CI 0.34-26.4 and 1.5, 95% CI 0.28-8.03 by PCR. None of the observed odds ratio was statistically significant. However,the results of this pilot study suggest a possible association of H. pylori with an increased risk of oral cancer.Additional studies in larger populations are necessary to confirm and to quantify this possible association moreaccurately.