Objective: This study assessed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of E. foetidum leaf extract on LPS-activated murine macrophages.
Methods: RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with or without E. foetidum extract for 1 h prior to incubation with LPS for 24 h. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated with reference to iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. In addition, NO and intracellular ROS generation were determined by Griess method and fluorescence intensity and activation of MAPKs and IkB by Western blotting.
Results: Prior treatment with E. foetidum leaf extract inhibited elevation of IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, together with their cognate mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. NO and intracellular ROS contents were similarly reduced. These effects were due to inhibition of LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 as well as IkB. E. foetidum ethanol extract were shown to contain lutein, β-carotene, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol and caffeic acid, compounds known to exert these bioactive properties.
Conclusions: E. foetidum leaf extract possesses suppressive effects against pro-inflammatory mediators. Thus, E. foetidum has a high potential to be used as a food supplement to reduce risk of cancer associated with inflammation.