Radiological, Bronchoscopic and Histopathologic Characteristics of Patients with Primary Lung Cancer in Turkey (2006-2009)


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiological, bronchoscopic and histopathological features of patients with primary lung cancer. Materials and
Methods: 485 patients who were hospitalized in our clinic between July 2006 and December 2009 and diagnosed with lung cancer (LC) were evaluated.
Results: The final diagnoses, established using various methods, were small cell LC for 62 patients, NSCLC of undetermined cell type for 191, epidermoid carcinoma for 148 patients, adenocarcinoma for 81 patients, and large cell LC for 3 patients. The mass was identified to be centrally located in 283 cases (58.3%) and peripherally in 202 cases (41.7%), and was found in the right lung in 51.5% of cases and mostly in the upper lobes bilaterally on radiological examination. The rate of hilar fullness, consolidation and atelectasis were higher in SCLC and epidermoid carcinoma with radiological examination. Diagnostic FOB (fiberoptic bronchoscopy) was performed in 466 of 485 patients. Endobronchial pathology was not obtained 140 patients. Endobronchial mass lesion, mucosal-submucosal lesions and signs of external pressure were observed in 152, 186 and 140 patients, respectively. Diagnostic material was obtained in 274 of 466 FOB examinations. A total of 211 patients underwent TTNA (transthoracic needle aspiration) and diagnosis was established in 204 cases. Pleural biopsy and/or fluid cytology were/was positive (+) for malignancy in 25 of the 47 cases with pleurisy. One patient, who could not be diagnosed by any of FOB or TTNA was diagnosed by pleural biopsy. Diagnostic results were obtained by thoracotomy in six patients who could not be diagnosed by other methods. 137 (28.2%) of 485 patients were considered to be operable.
Conclusion: NSCLCs (especially epidermoid) account for the majority of lung cancers in Turkey, gender and smoking influencing the histopathology. TTNA and FOB are diagnostic procedures providing best results, and more than 2/3 of patients are inoperable at diagnosis.