The aim of this research was to examine the incidence of major forms of cancer in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan. The present retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was therefore conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. Incidence rates (crude and standardized) of 11 leading cancer sites were calculated and trends determined. The result of analysis demonstrated the most common neoplams in the study region to be esophageal cancer, carcinoma of lung, stomach cancer, and breast cancer. Trends in incidence of cancers under study were different, the most marked reduction in cancer of esophagus is established (T=−6.1%) and revealed the high increase in breast cancer (T=+6.7%). In the dynamics the trend of malignant disease in general tended to decrease (T=−0.5%).