Variants of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) are involved in the development of cancer,but studies investigating the association of XRCC1-77T>C polymorphism with cancer risk have reportedconflicting results. To clarify the effect of the XRCC1 -77T>C polymorphism on cancer risk, we performeda meta-analysis by conducting searches of the published literature in PubMed, Embase and CBM databases.Finally, 13 studies were included into our meta-analysis, involving a total of 11, 678 individuals. Subgroupanalyses were performed by ethnicity and cancer type. The results of this meta-analysis showed that therewas significant association between the C variant of XRCC1-77T>C polymorphism and cancer risk in all fourgenetic comparison models (ORC vs. T =1.19, 95%CI 1.07-1.31, P = 0.001; OR homozygote model =1.28, 95%CI1.07-1.52, P = 0.007; OR recessive genetic model =1.22, 95%CI 1.04-1.44, P = 0.015; OR dominant model =1.21,95% CI 1.07-1.35, P = 0.001). In the subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, the association was still significantin the Asian population (all p values<0.001), but not in the Caucasian population (all p values > 0.05). Thus, theXRCC1 -77T>C polymorphism is associated with cancer risk, and individuals with XRCC1 -77C variant havea significantly higher cancer risk, particularly in the Asian population.