Background: The SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism is reported to be associated with lung cancer risk. However, this relationship remains controversial. For better understanding a meta-analysis was therefore performed. Methods: An extensive search was performed to identify all case-control studies investigating association between SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and lung cancer risk. The strength was assessed by odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: A total of five publications covering 1,669 cases and 1,890 controls were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association between SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and lung cancer risk was observed in overall comparisons in all genetic models (dominant model: OR=1.33, 95%CI=1.00-1.76, P=0.05; additive model: OR=1.30, 95%CI=0.93-1.81, P=0.12; recessive model: OR=1.21, 95%CI=0.89-1.66, P=0.23). However, on subgroup analysis, an elevated risk in mixed populations with variant His allele was revealed in the dominant model (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.06-2.62, P=0.03). Furthermore, the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in both females and males in the dominant model (females: OR=1.72, 95%CI=1.29-2.27, P=0.00; males: OR=1.46, 95%CI=1.19-1.78, P=0.00). No significant association between this polymorphism and different smoking status (smokers and non-smokers) and the other ethnicities (Asians and Caucasians) was shown. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis indicate that the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism is not associated with lung cancer risk in Asians and Caucasians, but possible elevation for genotype (GA/AA) in mixed populations and males and females needs further investigation.