Mammography utilization is low in Iran compared with other countries. Here a cross-sectional survey design was used to investigate psycho-social and individual factors associated with mammography among 400 women asymptomatic of breast cancer. The study was carried out at the four outpatient clinics of Tehran during the period from July through October, 2009. We found that mammography screening was related to higher self-efficacy and women’s occupation. Future tailored interventions on potential psycho-social determinants and specific demographic factors are critical in increasing mammography screening rates among Iranian women.