Validity and Reliability of the Fagerstrom Test for Cigarette Dependence in a Sample of Arabic Speaking UK-Resident Yemeni Khat Chewers


Background: The Fagerstrom Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD) (formally FTND) is widely used formeasuring physical dependence on nicotine.
Objective: To explore the cross cultural validity and reliability ofFTCD amongst Arabic speaker cigarette consumers who chew khat leaf, a stimulant green leaf.
Methods: Thepsychometric properties of the FTCD were assessed in a subsample (91regular cigarette smokers) of purposivelyselected 204 UK-resident Yemeni khat chewers recruited during random visits to khat sale outlets. Data werecollected via a structured face-to-face interview. Data analyses included descriptive tests and factor analysis.
Results: Two factors were obtained by a principle axis factor analysis and these were termed as urgency ofrestoring the level of nicotine after abstinence during sleeping and maintaining the level of nicotine duringwaking. The internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) of the whole FTCD is low (.68) as well as for thetwo subscales (.60) and (.62) respectively.
Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the Arabic version of theFTCD scale in this sample of Yemeni khat chewers who smoked regularly confirmed what has been establishedin other cultural settings. The findings of this study have yet to be cross validated amongst other appropriatelyrepresentative sample of Arabic speakers.