Liver Involvement in Multiple Myeloma: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study


Objective: This study was to assess liver involvement in multiple myeloma with the aid of liver function tests.Materials and
Methods: A hospital based retrospective study was undertaken using data retrieved of multiplemyeloma from the register maintained in the Department of Biochemistry of the Manipal Teaching Hospital,Pokhara, Nepal between 1st January, 2007 and 28th February, 2012. We collected biomarkers of liver profilesincluding bilirubin (Total, Direct and Indirect), total protein, albumin, AG ratio, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, γGT,LDH, ferritin, renal profile and hematological profile. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis were usedfor the analysis using EPI INFO and SPSS 16 software.
Results: Out of 37 cases of multiple myeloma, serumlevel of AST, ALT, ALP, γGT and LDH were increased above the cut-off point in 22 (59.5%), 24 (64.86%), 13(35.13%), 9 (24.3%) and 11 (29.7%) respectively. The mean values of AST (65.5±28.18 U/L), ALT (68.37±29.74U/L), ALP (328.0±148.4 U/L), γGT (44.5±29.6 U/L) and LDH (361.7±116.5 U/L), total protein (9.79±1.03 gm/dl) were significantly increased when compared with controls. In contrast, albumin (3.68±0.43 gm/dl) and theAG ratio (0.62±0.15) were significantly decreased. Similarly, anemia, hyperuricemia, azotemia, hypercalcaemiaand Bence Jones proteinuria were found in 30 (78.9%), 27 (71.1%), 19 (51.5%), 15 (39.5%) and 16 (42.1%)respectively, in cases of multiple myeloma.
Conclusions: While clinical manifestation of liver disease among themultiple myeloma was not common, abnormalities in liver function were characteristic.