The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between antioxidant vitamin levels andmalignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). For this purpose, we measured the serum levels of 4 antioxidantvitamins, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, retinol, and ascorbic acid, in patients with environmentally induced MPMand in healthy controls from one tremolite village (Kureysler), the biggest erionite village (Tuzkoy) and Ankara.A total of 160 subjects were enrolled in the study, 42 (26.3%) diagnosed with MPM and 118 (73.7%) healthysubjects. A comparison was made between the MPM group and three control groups of which two were exposedand one was unexposed to mineral fibers. The study population consisted of 82 males (51%) and 78 females(49%) with a mean of age of 44.8±14 years (range; 20-65 years). Lowest levels of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, andα-tocopherol were found in MPM patients (MPM vs control groups combined, p<0.0001 for each antioxidantvitamin), without any relation to age or sex. There was no significant difference between the antioxidant levels ofhealthy controls of Tuzkoy and Ankara. In conclusion; our findings suggested an increased risk of MPM beingassociated with low levels of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in patients with MPM.