MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play roles in the clinic, both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The identification ofrelevant microRNAs is critically required for ovarian cancer because of the prevalence of late diagnosis and poortreatment options currently. To identify miRNAs involved in the development or progression of ovarian cancer,we analyzed gene expression profiles downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Comparison of expressionpatterns between carcinomas and the corresponding normal ovarian tissues enabled us to identify 508 genesthat were commonly up-regulated and 1331 genes that were down-regulated in the cancer specimens. Functionannotation of these genes showed that most of the up-regulated genes were related to cell cycling, and most ofthe down-regulated genes were associated with the immune response. When these differentially expressed geneswere mapped to MiRTarBase, we obtained a total of 18 key miRNAs which may play important regulatory rolesin ovarian cancer. Investigation of these genes and microRNAs should help to disclose the molecular mechanismsof ovarian carcinogenesis and facilitate development of new approaches to therapeutic intervention.