High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) especially HPV-16 and HPV-18 types are speculated to be importantrisk factors in non-smoking associated lung cancer in Asia. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that HPVoncoproteins may contribute to lung tumorigenesis and cell transformation. Importantly, HPV 16/18 E6 and E7oncoproteins can mediate expression of multiple target genes and proteins, such as p53/pRb, VEGF, HIF-1α,cIAP-2, and hTERT, and contribute to cell proliferation, angiogenesis and cell immortalization through differentsignaling pathways in lung cancer. This article provides an overview of experiment data on HPV-associated lungcancer, describes the main targets on which HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins act, and further discusses the potentialsignaling pathways in which HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins are involved. In addition, we also raise questions regardingexisting problems with the study of HPV-associated lung cancer.