We conducted this study to detect associations between XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XPD Lys751Gln genotypesand survival of colorectal cancer patients treated with 5-FU/oxalipatin chemotherapy. We included 289 Chinesepatients with advanced colorectal cancer, who had received 5-FU/oxalipatin chemotherapy as first-line treatmentfrom January 2005 to January 2007. All patients were followed up till Nov. 2011. Genotyping for XRCC1Arg399Gln and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms was based upon duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with thePCR-RFLP method. In our study, we found the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln genotype to confer significantly higherrates of response to chemotherapy when compared to the Arg/Arg genotype [OR (95% CI)= 2.56(1.57-2.55)].patients with the XPD 751 Gln/Gln genotype had significantly higher rates of response to chemotherapy [OR(95% CI)= 1.54(0.87-2.65)] and those with the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln genotype had a longer average survivaltime and significantly lower risk of death than did those with the Arg/Arg genotype [HR (95% CI)= 0.66(0.36-0.95)]. Similarly, those carrying the XPD 751Gln/Gln genotype had 0.51-fold the risk of death of those with XPD751Lys/Lys [HR (95% CI)= 0.51(0.33 -0.94)]. In conclusion, it is suggested that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XPDLys751Gln polymorphisms should be routinely assessed to determine colorectal patients who are more likely tobenefit from 5-FU/oxalipatin chemotherapy.