Anti-inflammatory Agents Suppress the Prostaglandin E2 Production and Migration Ability of Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines


Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the products catalyzed by cyclooxygenases (COXs), could actuate severalpathways implicated in chronic inflammation-related cancer, including apoptosis evasion, cell proliferation,migration and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that blocking of PGE2 production might be an effective strategy toattenuate the progression of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effects oftwo anti-inflammatory agents, meloxicam, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and xanthohumol, a natural plant extract,on PGE2 production and migration ability of human CCA cell lines. The results showed that 100 μM of meloxicamand 10 μM of xanthohumol suppressed the PGE2 level in the cultured media and wound-induced migration ofhuman CCA cell lines, M139 and M214. The present results revealed that meloxicam and xanthohumol havepotential to suppress PGE2 production and cell migration. These findings may offer alternative approaches forchemoprevention and therapy of CCA.