Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the sixth most prevalent cancer worldwide, continues to have high prevalence in many countries of Asia. The main challenge is the high prevalence of chronic hepatitis and aflatoxin, for example in China. HBV vaccination should be the major preventive tactic in Asian countries. The burden of HCC is low in Iran because most cases are due to HBV and this infection was less common. Although in Iran, a mass vaccination program started in 1993, its impact on decreasing the burden of HCC due to HBV can onlybe expected in future decades.