We investigated the possible association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)and susceptibility to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 115 patients and 137 healthy controls. Genetic analysisof IL-10 SNPs at -819 and -592 was carried out with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lengthpolymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach. The IL-10 mRNA expression of AML patients and controls with differentgenotype was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genetic analysis of IL-10revealed that the -819AA genotype frequencies and the -819A allele frequencies in the AML group were higherthan in the controls (59.1% vs 40.9%; 75.6% vs 63.9%, respectively); there were remarkable differences in-819T/C and -592A/C gene distribution (P<0.05) and the TA haploid frequencies were higher in the AML group(75.6% vs 63.9%, P<0.05). IL-10 mRNA expression in incipient AML patients was obvious higher than the nontumorgroup and the remission group (7.78×10-3 vs 2.43×10-3, 3.64×10-3, P<0.05).The study suggested that thehaploid TA and genotype TA/TA may be associated with AML in Han people in Hunan province.The IL-10 SNPsat -819 and -592 sites were associated with AML and may affect IL-10 mRNA expression in AML patients.