Patho-epidemiological Features of Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in an Endemic Region: a 20-year Retrospective Study


Background: Gastric and esophageal cancers are among the most lethal human malignancies worldwide. Ofall malignancies estimated in Iran (47,100), gastric and esophageal cancers were responsible for 7,800 and 3,500deaths in 2008 respectively. The present study aimed to provide an image of patho-epidemiological characteristicswith their trends during two past decades with emphasis on topographic, morphologic, and some demographicfeatures. Materials and
Methods: In a hospital-based retrospective study in 2009, all pathological reports fromesophageal endoscopies and gastric biopsies through a 20 years period (1989-2008) were collected and analyzedin four interval periods (five years each). Also, all eligible samples in hospital archives were enrolled for furthertesting. Besides, demography, topography and morphology of all samples were determined and analyzed bystatistical software.
Results: No significant statistical difference was seen in frequency of esophageal and gastrictumors throughout the study. Esophageal cancer cases were older than gastric. Sex ratio was 2.33/1 and menhad a higher rate of both esophageal and gastric tumors. Stomach cancer included 64.3% of all cases. Inferiorthird and end of esophagus were common locations for esophageal tumors whereas proximal stomach wascommon for gastric tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were common morphological typesof tumors in esophagus and stomach respectively.
Conclusions: Morphological trends showed an increase ofesophageal adenocarcinoma and diffuse/intestinal ratio in stomach cancers. Trends in incidence from gastriccancer decreased based on topographic studies but we could not find a topographical trend toward cardia.