Acacia ferruginea Inhibits Tumor Progression by RegulatingInflammatory Mediators-(TNF-a, iNOS, COX-2, IL-1ß, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-2, GM-CSF) and Pro-Angiogenic Growth Factor-VEGF


The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of A ferruginea extract on Dalton’s lymphomaascites (DLA) induced tumours in BALB/c mice. Experimental animals received A ferruginea extract (10 mg/kg.b.wt) intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days after DLA tumor challenge. Treatment with extract significantlyincreased the life span, total white blood cell (WBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) content and decreased the level ofserum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) and nitric oxide (NO) in DLA bearing ascites tumor models. In addition, administration ofextract significantly decreased the tumour volume and body weight in a DLA bearing solid tumor model. Thelevels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β),interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as well as pro-angiogenicgrowth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)were elevated in solid tumour controls, but significantly reduced by A ferruginea administration. On the otherhand, the extract stimulated the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in animals withDLA induced solid tumours. Increase in CD4+ T-cell population suggested strong immunostimulant activity forthis extract. GC/MS and LC/MS analysis showed quinone, quinoline, imidazolidine, pyrrolidine, cyclopentenone,thiazole, pyrazole, catechin and coumarin derivatives as major compounds present in the A ferruginea methanolicextract. Thus, the outcome of the present study suggests that A ferruginea extract has immunomodulatory andtumor inhibitory activities and has the potential to be developed as a natural anticancer agent.