Significance of CA19-9 in Predicting the Prognosis of Urothelial Carcinoma: A Hospital Based Study from Nepal


Background: The present study was undertaken to establish any correlation of elevated levels of CA19-9 withtumor stage or grade of urothelial carcinoma. Materials and
Methods: This hospital based study was carriedout in the Department of Biochemistry of Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences between 1st July 2012 and31st December 2012. Approval for the study was obtained from the institutional research ethical committee.CA19-9 was assayed with an ELISA reader for all cases and expressed in U/ml with 37U/ml taken as the cut-offupper value for normal.
Results: Out of 20 cases enrolled, 15 were of urothelial carcinoma and the remaining5 were controls. There was marked difference between the mean values of CA19-9 in cases 40.2±19.3U/ml ofurothelial carcinoma and controls 7.98±7.34U/ml. The number of cases in Ta, TI, T2, T3, T4 stages of urothelialcarcinoma were 2, 6, 3, 3, 1 respectively. The percentage rise in CA19-9 was less with low grade tumors (22.2%)when compared with high grade tumors (66.6%) (p value 0.001*). The percentage of rise in CA19-9 for muscleinvasive tumors was very high when compared to superficial tumors. Similarly, the percentage of rise in CA19-9 for metastatic disease was very high when compared to non-metastatic disease and it was found statisticallysignificant (p value 0.001*).
Conclusion: Serum CA19-9 levels predicts the prognosis of urothelial carcinoma asit is almost invariably raised in tumors having metastatic spread.