Chemopreventive Effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume Tuber Against Aberrant Crypt Foci and Cell Proliferation in 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine Induced Colon Carcinogenesis


Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death, both in men and women. This study investigatedthe effects of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF)formation, colonic cell proliferation, lipid peroxidative damage and the antioxidant status in a long term preclinicalmodel of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats were dividedinto six groups, viz., group I rats served as controls; group II rats treated as drug controls receiving 250 mg/kg body weight of ACME orally; group III rats received DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously once aweek for the first 15 weeks; groups IV, V and VI rats received ACME along with DMH during the initiation,post- initiation stages and the entire period of the study, respectively. All the rats were sacrificed at the end of 30weeks and the intestinal and colonic tissues from different groups were subjected to biochemical and histologicalstudies. Administration of DMH resulted in significant (p≤0.05) intestinal and colonic lipid peroxidation (MDA)and reduction of antioxidants such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-Stransferaseand reduced glutathione. Whereas the supplementation of ACME significantly (p≤0.05) improvedthe intestinal and colonic MDA and reduced glutathione levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes inDMH intoxicated rats. ACME administration also significantly suppressed the formation and multiplicity ofACF. In addition, the DMH administered rats showed amplified expression of PCNA in the colon and decreasedexpression of this proliferative marker was clearly noted with initiation, post-initiation and entire period ofACME treatment regimens. These results indicate that ACME could exert a significant chemopreventive effecton colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH.