To obtain a screening and early detection reference for individuals who have a family history of cancer onthe paternal side, we collected and analyzed data from 240 pairs in which both fathers and their children werediagnosed with cancer. Disease categories of fathers and sons were similar to that of the general population ofChina, whereas daughters were different from general female population with high incidence of breast cancerand gynecological cancer. Sons were more likely than daughters to have the same type of cancer, or to have cancerin the same organ system as their fathers (P < 0.0001). Sons and daughters developed malignant diseases 11 and16 years earlier than their fathers, respectively (P < 0.0001 for both sons and daughters). Daughters developedmalignant diseases 5 years earlier than sons (P < 0.0001). Men with a family history of malignant tumors on thepaternal side should be screened for malignancies from the age of 45 years, or 11 years earlier than the age oftheir fathers’ diagnosis, and women should be screened from the age of 40 years, or 16 years earlier than the ageat which their fathers were diagnosed with cancer. Lung cancer should be investigated in both men and women,whilst screening should focus on cancer of the digestive system in men and on breast and gynecological cancer(ovary, uterine and cervical cancer) in women.