Genes and SNPs Associated with Non-hereditary and Hereditary Colorectal Cancer


Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the world andthe second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The incidence of colorectal cancer has increased in Iran inthe past three decades and is now considered as a serious problem for our society. This cancer has two typeshereditary and non-hereditary, 80% of cases being the latter. Considering that the relationship between SNPswith diseases is a concern, many researchers believed that they offer valuable markers for identifying genesresponsible for susceptibility to common diseases. In some cases, they are direct causes of human disease. OneSNP can increase risk of cancer, but when considering the rate of overlap and frequency of DNA repair pathways,it might be expected that SNP alone cannot affect the final result of cancer, although several SNPs together canexert a significant influence. Therefore identification of these SNPs is very important. The most important lociwhich include mutations are: MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, APC, MUTYH, SMAD7, STK11, XRCC3, DNMT1, MTHFR,Exo1, XRCC1 and VDR. Presence of SNPs in these genes decreases or increases risk of colorectal cancer. Materialsand
Methods: In this article we reviewed the Genes and SNPs associated with non-hereditary and hereditary ofcolorectal cancer that recently were reported from candidate gene y, meta-analysis and GWAS studies.
Results:As with other cancers, colorectal cancer is associated with SNPs in gene loci. Generally, by exploring SNPs, itis feasible to predict the risk of developing colorectal cancer and thus establishing proper preventive measures.
Conclusions: SNPs of genes associated with colorectal cancer can be used as a marker SNP panel as a potentialtool for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment planning.