This study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of non-performance of mammography, and associatedfactors, among postmenopausal women. This analytical, exploratory, cross-sectional study, of a domicilepopulation inquiry type, was performed in the municipality of Maringa, Parana, Brazil. A total of 456 womenwere interviewed, aged 45 to 69 years, who presented with natural menopause and cessation of menstruationfor at least twelve months. Statistical associations were found between the non-performance of mammographyand schooling of less than seven years, paid employment, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, the non-use of hormonereplacement therapy, not having consulted a doctor in the previous year, not having consulted a gynecologist,lacking a family history of breast cancer, not having performed the Papanicolaou test, not having performedclinical breast examination, and not having difficult access to health services. After logistic regression analysis,not performing mammography was associated with reports of a fair or bad health status. The study datarevealed factors “responsible” for the non-performance of mammography, and the results should contributingto improvement/enhancement of healthy behaviour of Brazilian women in the post-menopausal phase.