Correlation of Habits and Clinical Findings with Histopathological Diagnosis in Oral Submucosal Fibrosis Patients


Background: Oral submucosal fibrosis (OSMF) is one of the most prevalent premalignant conditions in Indiawhich is easy to diagnose but difficult to manage. At present it is considered as irreversible and incurable. It hasalso been referred to as an epidemic in India. Aims and
Objectives: To correlate the frequency and durationof habits with clinical staging, functional staging and histopathological grading and to correlate the clinicaland functional staging with histopathological grading. Materials and
Methods: The study included a total of90 subjects, 80 with OSMF in the experimental group and 10 patients in the control group. Patient personalhistory was recorded with chewing habits, including frequency and duration of chewing. The site of keepingthe quid, time duration and whether he/she swallows it or spits it were also noted. Clinical staging was doneon the presence of palpable fibrous bands. Functional staging was accomplished by measuring mouth opening.Incisional biopsy was done for all the patients for histopathological examination. Histopathological gradingwas according to Pindborg and Sirsat.
Results: The experimental group comprised 71 males and 9 females, themajority of which were in the age group of 21-30 years. Correlation of habits with clinical staging, functionalstaging and histopathological grading were significant (p<0.05). Clinical and functional staging did not correlatewith histopathological grading, but the correlation of clinical and functional staging was highly significant(p<0.01).
Conclusions: The widespread habit of chewing gutkha is a major risk factor for OSMF, especially inthe younger age group. In this study, it was found that with increase in the duration and frequency of the habitthe severity of the disease increased.