The aim of this study was to determine predictive factors for neutropenia after docetaxel-based systemicchemotherapy in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The study included 40 KoreanCRPC patients who were treated with several cycles of docetaxel plus prednisolone from May 2005 to May 2012.Patients were evaluated for neutropenia risk factors and for the incidence of neutropenia. In this study, nine outof forty patients (22.5%) developed neutropenia during the first cycle of docetaxel-based systemic chemotherapy.Four experienced grade 2, three grade 3, and one grade 4 neutropenia. Multivariate analysis showed thatpretreatment white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.042), pretreatment neutrophil count (p=0.015), pretreatmentserum creatinine level (p=0.027), and pretreatment serum albumin level (p=0.017) were significant predictivefactors for neutropenia. In conclusion, pretreatment WBC counts, neutrophil counts, serum creatinine levels,and serum albumin levels proved to be significant independent risk factors for the development of neutropeniainduced by docetaxel-based systemic chemotherapy in patients with CRPC.