Vitamin D3 and Beta-carotene Deficiency is Associated with Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Results of a Case-control Study in China


Objective: The aim was to evaluate roles of vitamin D3 (VD3) and beta-carotene (BC) in the developmentof esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a high-risk area, Huai’an District, Huai’an City, China.
Methods: 100 new ESCC diagnosed cases from 2007 to 2008 and 200 residency- age-, and sex-matched healthycontrols were recruited. Data were collected from questionnaires, including a food frequency questionnaire(FFQ) to calculate the BC intake, and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)was used to measure the serum concentrations of BC and VD3. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals(CI) were calculated in conditional logistic regression models.
Results: The average dietary intake of BC was3322.9 μg (2032.4- 5734.3) in the case group and 3626.8 μg (1961.9-5827.9) in control group per capita per daywith no significant difference by Wilcoxon test (p>0.05). However, the levels of VD3 and BC in the case groupwere significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.05). The OR values of the highest quartile and the lowestquartile of VD3 and BC in serum samples were both 0.13.
Conclusion: Our results add to the evidence that highcirculating levels of VD3 and BC are associated with a reduced risk of ESCC in this Chinese population.