Background: Urological cancers represent a major public problem associated with high mortality andmorbidity. The pattern of these cancers varies markedly according to era, region and ethnic groups, butincreasing incidence trends overall makes focused epidemiological studies important. The aim of the presentstudy was to assess the incidence of most prevalent urological cancers in Iran from 2003 to 2009. Materials and
Methods: The data for this study were obtained from the population-based Cancer Registry Center of the IranMinistry of Health and Medical Education. Differences of mean age and age distributions of each cancer werecompared between 2003 and 2009 in men and women.
Results: Bladder cancer was the most common urologiccancer in both genders. The rate difference of age standardized ratio (ASR) of bladder and renal cell carcinomain women were 1.54 and 2.01 percent per 100,000 population from 2003 to the 2009, respectively. In men, therate difference of age standardized ratio of prostate, testis, kidney and bladder cancer was also 2.23, 1.2, 1.8and 1.5 percent per 100,000 population from 2003 to 2009, respectively. The mean ages of patients in all cancersin both genders did not differ significantly through time (p value>0.05) but the distribution of ages of patientswith bladder and prostate cancer changed significantly from 2003 to 2009 (p value<0.001).
Conclusions: Theresults of present study suggest the general pattern and incidence of urological cancers in Iran are changing,the observed increase pointing to a need for urological cancer screening programs.