This study was conducted in order to obtain a screening and early detection reference for children whosemothers had been diagnosed with cancer. Data for 276 mother-child pairs with malignant tumors were analyzed.The distribution of cancers in affected families was generally similar to that of the general Chinese population,and correspondingly breast cancer was the most common malignancy amongst daughters whose mother hadcancer (32.7%). The most prevalent cancer amongst sons with affected mothers was gastric cancer, rather thanlung cancer. Daughters were more likely to have the same kind of malignant tumor as their mother (P<0.05),and were more likely to develop breast cancer than any other malignant disease if their mother had a breasttumor (P<0.0001). Likewise, if the mother was diagnosed with breast or gynecological cancer, the daughter wasmore likely to be diagnosed with breast or gynecological cancer than any other cancer (P<0.01). Daughters andsons developed malignant diseases 11 and 6.5 years earlier than their mothers, respectively (P<0.0001).Womenwith a mother who suffered cancer should be screened for malignancy from 40 years of age especially for breast,lung, and gynecological cancers. For men with affected mothers, screening should start when they are 45 yearsold focusing particularly on lung and digestive system cancers.